[spoiler title="Gravitational Field" open="yes"] Newton’s Law of Gravitation states that the gravitational force between two point masses is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their separation, i.e. where G is the gravitational constant 6.67 10-11 N kg-2m2, m1 and m2 are the masses and r is the

# Category: Subject Content

Study notes for the GCE ‘A’ level syllabus

## 06. Motion in a Circle

[accordions autoHeight='true'] [accordion title="1. Rotational Kinematics"] Angular displacement is defined as the angle an object turns with respect to the centre of a circle. where s is the arc and r is the radius of the circle. One radian is the angular displacement when the arc length is equal to the radius of the circle.

## 05. Work, Energy and Power

[accordions autoHeight='true'] [accordion title="1. Work Done"] Work done W is defined as the product of the force and the displacement made in the direction of the force. For a constant force F acting in same direction as the displacement s: W = F . s If is the angle between F and s: Work

## 14. D.C. Circuits

The Potential Divider Rule Determining the relative brightness of light bulbs using the potential divider rule How Internal Resistance affects brightness of light bulbs

## 16. Electromagnetic Induction

How emf is induced Electromagnetic Induction and its Effects To explain a phenomenon that happens due to Electromagnetic Induction, we can use an acronym CFILE to structure our answer. C stands for cutting of flux or changing of flux linkage. This is necessary for electromagnetic induction to happen. When a wire is pulled through a

## 17. Alternating Currents

The root-mean-square value of an alternating current is equivalent to the steady direct current that would dissipate heat at the same rate as the alternating current in a given resistor. For a sinusoidal source, (a) the root mean square value of the current is given by . (b) the mean or average power < P

## 18. Quantum Physics

[accordions autoHeight='true'] [accordion title="1. Particle Nature of Light"] A photon is a quantum of electromagnetic radiation. The energy of a photon is given by E=hf, where h is Planck's constant (6.63 10-34 J s) and f is its frequency. [/accordion] [accordion title="1.1 Photoelectric Effect"] The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from a metal surface when electromagnetic radiation of sufficiently high frequency

## 20. Nuclear Physics

The Nucleus existence and size demonstrated using the Rutherford -scattering experiment. consists of nucleons (protons and neutrons) isotopes of an element share the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Nuclear Reactions nuclear reactions involve two or more reactants. represented using the form: for a reaction that releases energy, mass-energy of reactants =

## 19. Lasers and Semiconductors

LASER This flow chart shows the requirements expected of students when describing how light is produced using LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation). BAND THEORY Energy bands are formed in solids where there are multiple atoms, each closely packed with their neighbouring atoms. The outer electrons of each atom interacts with those

## 15. Electromagnetism

[accordions autoHeight='true'] [accordion title="1. Definitions"] The magnetic flux density at a point is defined as the force acting per unit current per unit length of the conductor when the conductor is placed at right angles to the field. One tesla is the uniform magnetic flux density which, acting normally to a long straight wire carrying